Torque Converter
Torque is a fundamental concept in engineering and mechanics, playing a crucial role in various applications. Whether you are an automotive enthusiast, a mechanical engineer, or simply curious about the physics behind rotating systems, understanding torque and its measurement is essential. In this article, we will explore the various units used to measure torque, along with their conversion factors and definitions.
What is Torque?
Torque, represented by the symbol "τ" (tau), is a rotational force that causes an object to rotate around an axis. It is the product of a force acting perpendicular to a lever arm or moment arm and the distance from the axis of rotation. In simpler terms, torque is the measure of how much force is needed to cause rotational motion. Torque is expressed in different units depending on the system of measurement used.
Units of Torque

Newton meter (N•m): The newton meter is the standard unit of torque in the International System of Units (SI). It represents the torque produced when a force of one newton is applied at a distance of one meter from the axis of rotation.

Kilonewton meter (kN•m): The kilonewton meter is a unit of torque in the metric system. One kilonewton meter (kN•m) is equal to 1,000 newton meters.
Conversion Factor: 1 kN•m = 1,000 N•m 
Millinewton meter (mN•m): The millinewton meter is a of torque, where one millinewton meter (mN•m) is equal to onethousandth (1/1000) of a newton meter.
Conversion Factor: 1 mN•m = 0.001 N•m 
Dyne meter (dyn•m): The dyne meter is a unit of torque in the centimetergramsecond (CGS) system. It is the torque produced when a force of one dyne is applied at a distance of one meter from the axis of rotation.
Conversion Factor: 1 dyn•m = 0.00001 N•m 
Kilogramforce meter (kgf•m): The kilogramforce meter is a unit of torque derived from the gravitational force exerted on a mass of one kilogram. It represents the torque produced when a force of one kilogramforce is applied at a distance of one meter from the axis of rotation.
Conversion Factor: 1 kgf•m = 9.80665 N•m 
Gramforce meter (gf•m): The gramforce meter is a unit of torque derived from the gravitational force exerted on a mass of one gram. It represents the torque produced when a force of one gramforce is applied at a distance of one meter from the axis of rotation.
Conversion Factor = 1 gf•m = 0.001 kgf•m = 0.00980665 N•m 
Poundforce foot (lbf•ft): The poundforce foot is a unit of torque commonly used in the United States. It represents the torque produced when a force of one poundforce is applied at a distance of one foot from the axis of rotation.
Conversion Factor: 1 lbf•ft = 1.3558 N•m 
Poundforce inch (lbf•in): The poundforce inch is another unit of torque commonly used in the United States. It represents the torque produced when a force of one poundforce is applied at a distance of one inch from the axis of rotation.
Conversion Factor: 1 lbf•in = 1/12 lbf•ft = 0.113 N•m 
Ounceforce foot (ozf•ft): The ounceforce foot is a unit of torque used primarily in the United States that represents the torque produced when a force of one ounceforce is applied at a distance of one foot from the axis of rotation.
Conversion Factor: 1 ozf•ft 1/16 lbf•ft = 0.0847 N•m 
Ounceforce inch (ozf•in): The ounceforce inch is a unit of torque used in the United States that represents the torque produced when a force of one ounceforce is applied at a distance of one inch from the axis of rotation.
Conversion Factor: 1 ozf•in = 1/12 ozf•ft = 0.00706 N•m 
Poundal foot (pdl•ft): The poundal foot is a unit of torque used in the British engineering system. It represents the torque produced when a force of one poundal is applied at a distance of one foot from the axis of rotation.
Conversion Factor: 1 pdl•ft = 1/32.1741 lbf•ft = 0.04214 N•m 
Poundal inch (pdl•in): The poundal inch is a unit of torque used in the British engineering system. It represents the torque produced when a force of one poundal is applied at a distance of one inch from the axis of rotation.
Conversion Factor: 1 pdl•in = 1/12 pdl•ft = 0.00351 N•m